Trigger point therapy for headaches tends to involve four muscles: the Splenius muscles, the Suboccipitals, the Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and also the Trapezius. The Splenius muscles consist of two individual muscles - the Splenius Capitis and the Splenius Cervicis. Both these muscles run from your shoulders to either the bottom of the skull (splenius capitis) or the upper cervical vertebrae (splenius cervicis). Trigger points within the Splenius muscles can be a common cause of headache pain that travels through the head to the back of your eye, or even the top head.
The Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle runs from your bottom of the skull, just behind the ear, down the side of the neck to connect to the very top of the sternum (breastbone). Although most people are unaware of the SCM trigger points, their effects are widespread, including referred pain, balance problems and visual disturbances. Referred pain patterns are generally deep eye pain, headaches over the eye and may even cause earaches. Another unusual manifestation of SCM trigger points is that they can cause dizziness, nausea and unbalance.
The trapezius muscle is the large, flat muscle in the upper and mid back. A common trigger point found in the very top of the Trapezius muscle refers pain to the temple and back of the head and is sometimes accountable for headache pain. This trigger point is capable of producing satellite trigger points in the muscles in the temple or jaw, which can lead to jaw or tooth pain.